John and David's Mitochondrial Haplogroup History

Below are compiled results of several tests I have had perfomed on my mitochondrial DNA. These are taken directly from the information provided by 23andme (Figure 1) and Genebase.

Figure 1. Distribution of J haplogroup 500 years ago. Haplogroup J originated about 45,000 years ago on the Arabian Peninsula not long after modern humans expanded out of Africa and onto the Eurasian continent. About 7,000 years ago the expansion of farming carried daughter lineages of J into Europe.

The mtDNA haplogroups that are ancestral to your predicted mtDNA haplogroup appear in the following order.

 Haplogroup J

Time: Emerged approx 50,000 years ago
Place: Near East Facts


The woman who founded Haplogroup J lived approximately 45,000 years ago in the Near East (Mesopotamia). Descendents of the Haplogroup J line moved north and west into Eastern Europe approximately 10,000 years ago. Today, descendents of this line can be found throughout Europe, but are most commonly associated with individuals from Russia and Eastern Europe.European Ancestry


Today, the mitochondrial DNA sequences of Europeans fall into one of ten major Haplogroups: H, J, K, N1, T, U4, U5, V, X and W. Haplogroup N is the common ancestor of all of these European haplogroups.Ancestors


The woman who founded the Haplogroup J line is the direct female descendent of female ancestors belonging to Haplogroup JT who in turn are descendents of Haplogroup R. Haplogroup R is Near/Middle Eastern and Caucasus in origin.

Haplogroup JT

Time: Emerged approx 60,000 years ago
Place: Unknown Facts


Haplogroup JT is descended from haplgroup R and gave rise to two major haplgroups: J and T.Ancestors


The woman who founded the Haplogroup JT line is the direct female descendent of a woman belonging to the Haplogroup R line.

Haplogroup R

Time: Emerged approx 60,000 years ago
Place: Near East Facts


The woman who founded Haplogroup R lived approximately 60,000 years ago in the Near East. Her descendents are the founders of many European lineages. Major descendents of the Haplogroup R include Haplogroups B, F, J, T, U, K, H and V.

Haplogroup R gave rise to many different subclades.
The subclade R1 is defined by the HVR-1 mutations at 16278 and 16311.
Mutations at 16071 in HVR-1 region and 152 in HVR-2 region are characteristic of R2 subclade. Ancestor


The woman who founded the Haplogroup R line is the direct female descendent of female ancestors belonging to Haplogroup N.

Haplogroup N

Time: Emerged approx 60,000 – 80,000 years ago
Place: Africa / Mediterranean region Facts


The woman who founded the Haplogroup N lineage lived in the Mediterranean region and represents one of two large family clans which made the initial journey out of Africa to populate Europe and Asia. The descendents of Haplogroup N are responsible for forming all of the European Haplogroups and several Asian Haplogroups.

Today, the descendents of Haplogroup N span over various continents. The mitochondrial DNA sequences of Europeans fall into one of ten major Haplogroups: H, J, K, N1, T, U4, U5, V, X and W, all of which are descendents of the Haplogroup N. Each haplogroup is associated with a different ancestral lineage.
N1a is characterized by the HVR-1 motif 16147-16172-16248-16320-16355.
N1b is defined by the HVR-1 mutations at 16145 and 16176.
Mutations at 16257 and 16261 in the HVR-1 region and 150 in the HVR-2 region define the subclade N9a. Ancestors


The woman who founded the Haplogroup N line is the direct female descendent of a woman belonging to the Haplogroup L3 line. Haplogroup L3 is African in origin.

Haplogroup L3

Time: Emerged approx 70,000 – 100,000 years ago
Place: Africa / Mediterranean region Facts


The woman who founded Haplogroup L3 is a descendent of Haplogroup L1. This haplogroup is especially significant because its two direct descendents, macro-haplogroups M and N, went on to populate the rest of the world, forming all non-African haplogroups that we see today.

Some members of the lineage L3 migrated northward, left the African continent and started a coastal journey eastward, which gave rise to Haplogroup M and its descendents. Such migration is believed to be the initial migration of modern humans out of Africa. Other members of L3 headed northward to new lands where the Neanderthals originally inhabited, and these people gave rise to Haplogroup N.

Today, haplogroup L3 can be found across Africa. It has five major subgroups: L3a, L3b, L3c, L3d, L3e, L3f.
L3b is characterized by the coding mutation at 10086 and the HVR-1 motif 16124-16278-16362.
L3d is defined by the coding mutation at 8618 and HVR-1 mutation at 16124.
Coding mutation at 2352 and HVR-2 mutation at 150 define subgroup L3e.
HVR-1 mutation at 16209 defines subgroup L3f. Ancestors


The woman who founded the Haplogroup L1 line is the direct female descendent of Mitochondrial Eve, the most recent matrilineal ancestor of all humans living today.

Mitochondrial Eve

Time: Lived approx 140,000 years ago
Place: Africa Facts


Mitochondrial Eve is the most recent common matrilineal ancestor (MRCA) of all humans living today. Her mtDNA was passed down from mother to children over the past 150,000 years and all people living today can trace their mtDNA back to the common mtDNA type of the Mitochondrial Eve. She lived approximately 140,000 years ago in what is now Ethiopia.African Ancestry


Today, the mitochondrial DNA sequences of Africans fall into one of several major Haplogroups: L1, L2, L3, M1, and U6. Each haplogroup is associated with a different ancestral lineage.
 
Sources: Most of this information is taken directly from Ancestry.com, 23andMe, or Genebase results for Johnathan Storlie.

Why is Mitochondrial dna only passed by the mother?

 Although sperm do have mitochondria, that mitochondia is not transferred to the egg. Therefore, the mitochondria that are retained by the fertilized egg is that which was found in the mother's egg.